Will Sustainable Development Goals save Rio+20? Maybe. But everyone must buy into them.
Salvation for the UN Rio+20 Summit may come in the form of universal Sustainable Development Goals. Without them the summit risks becoming a flop.
But what are the Sustainable Development Goals? To date, little has been written about them and few people, it seems, have an idea what goals to choose, who will choose them or how they will operate.
Columbia and Guatemala were the first to propose the idea of a new set of goals and it has quickly gained momentum. Recently, several hard-hitting reports have backed the idea including Ban Ki-moon’s Global Sustainability Panel report and the State of the Planet Declaration published by the scientific community published at the recent Planet Under Pressure conference. Civil society organizations have also got in on the act. Indeed it is the civil society organizations who have gone further than any others to identify new goals.
Any new set of goals will probably work much like the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) but be broader, potentially encompassing all aspects of global sustainability. 193 nations and 23 international organizations voluntarily signed up to MDGs, which are due to finish in 2015.
A significant difference this time round is that goals for sustainable development must be universal — they must apply to all nations. This might be an ask too far for the United States. But to achieve genuine sustainable development rich nations must change their habits.
There are several ideas for Sustainable Development Goals on the table but let’s start with the orignal MDGs:
- Eradicate extreme hunger and poverty
- Achieve universal primary education
- Promote gender equality and empower women
- Reduce child mortality
- Improve maternal health
- Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
- Ensure environmental sustainability
- Develop a global partnership for development
The Columbian government has proposed a new set of eight goals:
- Combating poverty
- Changing consumption patterns
- Promoting sustainable human settlement development
- Biodiversity and forests
- Water resources
- Advancing food security
- Energy, including from renewable sources
- Sustainable consumption and production
- Sustainable livelihoods, youth and education
- Climate sustainability
- Clean energy
- Healthy seas and oceans
- Healthy forests
- Sustainable agriculture
- Green cities
- Subsidies and investment
- New indicators of progress
- Access to information
- Public participation
- Access to redress and remedy
- Environmental justice for the poor and marginalized
- Basic health
Surprisingly, these goals fail to explicitly mention the number one priority for many nations: poverty eradication. Gender issues and equality are strangely missing too. The report’s goal for sustainable agriculture is woefully off target: “By 2030, global agricultural production is transformed from industrial to sustainable.” If we are to feed 9 billion, food production will be industrial.
It is clear a more thorough analysis is needed.
Planetary boundaries and sustainable development goals
In 2009, a group of researchers suggested if we respect nine “planetary boundaries” we will go a long way to creating a safe operating space for humanity.
While some Earth-system scientists are critical, others have latched on to it as a useful foundation for international policy, even suggesting the boundaries concept could form the basis of Sustainable Development Goals. Oxfam has taken the boundaries concept one step farther and developed a set of social boundaries based, it says, on human rights. Taken together, Kate Raworth, a senior researcher at Oxfam, suggests this could be the starting point for discussions on new goals.
What could happen at Rio?
One potential outcome could be:
- Initiate Sustainable Development Goals
- Create a Sustainable Development Council or other such body to oversee goals.
- Develop a Sustainable Development Assessment or Outlook report to monitor progress and provide early warnings of new global and regional challenges.
Roadmap to Sustainable Development Goals
The Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in Japan has suggested a potential timeline for action on Sustainable Development Goals:
- At Rio+20 agree to develop Sustainable Development Goals.
- UN Secretary General establishes a mechanism to define goals.
- Select some overarching themes such as food security and energy and set up a few test-drive groups of countries with different circumstances or capabilities to trial some of these targets, take measurements, then share the experiences.
- Develop measurements or indicators beyond GDP, taking into account the result of these test-drives.
- Adopt SDGs at the 68th UN General Assembly in 2013.
- Integrate SDGs into a post-2015 development agenda.
Where to next?
The large London Planet Under Pressure conference in March organized a World Cafe-type session to kickstart a fresh dialogue between the scientific community and policymakers on a new set of goals, indicators and targets. The aim was not to come up with a set of goals but to start doing a lot more thinking on the whole idea. This could form the nucleus of a mechanism to define goals.
What the scientists say:
We need a lengthy dialogue will all concerned to develop a comprehensive suite of goals that takes into account all the interconnections and trade-offs between goals. In addition we need a universally accepted definition of sustainable development and a full suite of metrics and indicators to measure progress. In short, goals need to be quantitative to reduce the risk of failure.
What the rest of the world may say:
Let’s dash off a list that looks like it covers all the bases.
As everyone who has tried to lose weight or give up smoking knows, setting goals does not always work, particularly if it requires changing habits of a lifetime. The wording of new goals is critical If it means altering people’s core values and beliefs.
Finally, it would be a mistake to impose goals on people. Everyone needs to buy into the idea. This should be the biggest outreach project of all time.